Fasting

Surah Al-Baqarah 183-185 :

yāayyuhā  alladhīna  āmanū  kutiba  ʿalaykumu  l-ṣiyāmu  kamā  kutiba  ʿalā  alladhīna  min  qablikum  laʿallakum  tattaqūna

O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous

ayyāman  maʿdūdātin  faman  kāna  minkum  marīḍan  aw  ʿalā  safarin  faʿiddatun  min  ayyāmin  ukhara  waʿalā  alladhīna  yuṭīqūnahu  fid’yatun  ṭaʿāmu  mis’kīnin  faman  taṭawwaʿa  khayran  fahuwa  khayrun lahu  wa-an  taṣūmū  khayrun  lakum  in  kuntum  taʿlamūna

Fasting for] a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] – then an equal number of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. And whoever volunteers excess – it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.

shahru  ramaḍāna  alladhī  unzila  fīhi  l-qur’ānu  hudan  lilnnāsi  wabayyinātin  mina  l-hudā  wal-fur’qāni  faman  shahida  minkumu  l-shahra  falyaṣum’hu  waman  kāna  marīḍan  aw  ʿalā  safarin  faʿiddatun  min ayyāmin  ukhara  yurīdu  l-lahu  bikumu  l-yus’ra  walā  yurīdu  bikumu  l-ʿus’ra  walituk’milū  l-ʿidata  walitukabbirū  l-laha  ʿalā  mā  hadākum  ala ʿallakum  tashkurūna

The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.

 

Narrated `Abdullah bin `Amr: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said to me, “The most beloved fasting to Allah was the fasting of (the Prophet) Dawud who used to fast on alternate days. And the most beloved prayer to Allah was the prayer of Dawud who used to sleep for (the first) half of the night and pray for 1/3 of it and (again) sleep for a sixth of it.”‏
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 3420
In-book reference : Book 60, Hadith 92
English reference : Vol. 4, Book 55, Hadith 631

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Whoever fasts every day of his life, then he has neither fasted, nor broken the fast.”‏
Reference : Sunan an-Nasa’i 2374
In-book reference : Book 22, Hadith 285
English translation : Vol. 3, Book 22, Hadith 2376

It was narrated from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “At every breaking of the fast Allah has people whom He frees (from the Fire), and that happens every night.”
English reference : Vol. 1, Book 7, Hadith 1643
Arabic reference : Book 7, Hadith 1712

It was narrated from Abu Saeed Al-Khudri that the Prophet said: “Whoever fasts a day in the cause of Allah, Allah will separate his face from the heat of Hell (a distance of) seventy autumns.”
Reference : Sunan an-Nasa’i 2252
In-book reference : Book 22, Hadith 163
English translation : Vol. 3, Book 22, Hadith 2254
It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘There has come to you Ramadan, a blessed month, which Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, has enjoined you to fast. In it the gates of heavens are opened and the gates of Hell are closed, and every devil is chained up. In it Allah has a night which is better than a thousand months; whoever is deprived of its goodness is indeed deprived.”‘
Reference : Sunan an-Nasa’i 2106
In-book reference : Book 22, Hadith 17
English translation : Vol. 3, Book 22, Hadith 2108
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