Fard (Obligatory)

Derived from

fā rā ḍād

faraḍa (verb) = ordained
faraḍnā = We have made obligatory

* Salat-al-Fajr

Derived from

fā jīm rā

l-fajri (noun, masculine) = (at) dawn

* Salat-al-Zuhr

Derived from

ẓā hā rā

zahara (verb) = is apparent, has appeared
l-ẓahīrati (feminine noun) = noon

* Salat-al-‘Asr

Derived from

ʿayn ṣād rā

aʿṣiru (verb) = pressing
wal-ʿaṣri = by the time

* Salat-al-Maghrib

Derived from

ghayn rā bā

l-maghribi (masculine noun) = the west
maghribi (masculine noun) = the setting place

* Salat-al-Isha

Derived from

ʿayn shīn wāw

l-ʿishāi (masculine noun) = (of) night



Prayers that come next in rank to Obligatory prayers, in accordance to the importance attached to it by Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salaam

Some scholars consider there is no difference between Fard and Wajib, some consider that Fard is obligatory while Wajib is necessary


Sunnatul mu’akkadah

Derived from

sīn nūn nūn

sunnatu (feminine noun) = the way(s), the practice
sunnata (feminine noun) = (the) Way, (the established) way

Prayers that the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salaam used to offer regularly and recommended his followers to do so.
Sunnatul-mu’akkadah are offered along with Obligatory prayers of Fajr, Zuhr, Maghrib and Isha

Prayers that the Prophet offered occassionally are called Sunnatul ghayril mu’akkadah



Derived from

nūn fā lām

nāfilatan (feminine noun) = additional

Voluntary prayers, perhaps for spiritual benefit


Forbidden times to pray :

Narrated ‘Umar: “The Prophet forbade praying after the Fajr prayer till the sun rises and after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets.” Sahih al-Bukhari 581

Narrated Hisham’s father: Ibn `Umar said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘Do not pray at the time of sunrise and at the time of sunset.’ ” Ibn `Umar said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘If the edge of the sun appears (above the horizon) delay the prayer till it becomes high, and if the edge of the sun disappears, delay the prayer till it sets (disappears completely).’ ” Sahih al-Bukhari 582, 583


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